The Education system in Canada
The Education system in Cyprus
The Federal law "On Education" defines the forms of educational
establishments as state, municipal and non-state ones. According to the same
law the higher education is built upon the following typology of
establishments: universities, academies, and institutes. They offer training
programs on all levels of higher, postgraduate and continuing education.
Differences in typology are related to a range of fundamental, applied,
social sciences trained in, spectrum of proposed programs as well as scope
and level of research investigations.
Since 1992, Russian higher education
has had a multi-level structure. The term "multi-level" indicates that
degrees now maybe obtained on three levels instead of an only one level, as
in the former Soviet Union. Nowadays, higher education institutions may
confer the following degrees and diplomas:
Level 1 comprises the first two years of studies and is concentrated on
compulsory fundamental courses in the given speciality. After this period,
students may either continue their studies or, if they do not want to do so,
leave the institution with an Intermediate Diploma;this Diploma is conferred
in all fields of study; the Diploma is not a degree, it is only an
intermediate qualification; however, the Diploma gives its holder the right
to exercise a professional activity in accordance with the level of
education it represents; the Diploma supplement lists the results of normal
examinations taken during the first two years of study.
• Level 2 is a continuation of studies for the Bachelor degree the
during at least another two years; it leads to the four-year Bachelor
degree; Bachelor programmes can cover all disciplines except medicine; the
function of the Bachelor degree is to provide a more academically rather
than professionally oriented education; each Bachelor programme contains a
defined portion of fundamental education with courses taken from the
humanities, the social sciences and economics, and natural sciences.
Following a successful attestation,a State Diploma (Figure 2aon the Cover)
is issued attesting conferral of the Bachelor degree;
the supplement to the Diploma (Figure 2b on the Cover) includes disciplines
taught, number of hours, the grades, the practical training, the results of
final state examinations;
Level 3 represents an educational level common both to the Master Diploma
and to the Specialist Diploma;
•• the traditional qualification of Specialist Diploma has two
functions: it opens access to professional practice (e.g. to engineers,
teachers, etc.),and it is also the traditional prerequisite for admission to
doctoral studies; the qualification of Diploma Specialist is conferred after
studies lasting five to six years; the Diploma is awarded in all fields of
study (specialities); State final attestation for a Specialist Diploma
covers the defence of a project or a thesis and State final examinations;
the procedure for the Diploma award as well as the content of the supplement
to the Diploma are the same as for the Bachelor degree (Figure 3 on the
•• a Master programme is at least a two-year course programme
centered more around research activities than the Specialist Diploma; access
to Master studies is open to the holders of the Bachelor degree; each Master
programme consists of two almost equal components: the course component and
the independent research component; Master studies are completed by a State
final attestation including the defence of a dissertation and passing State
final examinations; the procedures for State final attestation and for the
award of the Diploma (Figure 4 on the Cover ) as well as the content of the
Diploma supplement are the same as for the Bachelor degree.
Graduates of higher education institutions with a bent for research work may
pursue their education as postgraduates attending educational programmes of
postgraduate professional education. The hierarchy of advanced degrees in
Russia traditionally includes two-stage system of doctoral degrees: the
Candidate of Science (Ph.D. degree) and the Doctor of Science (D.
Both university level higher education institutions and research
institutions have the right to set up doctoral study programs. Two national
bodies, the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation and the Russian
Academy of Sciences are responsible for the general supervision of doctoral
studies in higher education institutions and research institutions,
respectively. Educational programs of postgraduate professional education
can be implemented in those educational and research establishments which
dispose high-quality academic staff, sufficient financial provision and
The main route leading to the Ph.d. degree is the postgraduate study which
is aimed at imparting in-depth theoretical, special and social education and
of training scientific and teaching staff through the mastery of means and
methods of scientific study so that they may be able to carry out
independent research and educational work with great skill. The general
prerequisites for admission to postgraduate study are completion of a full
course of study at a university level higher education institution and award
of the Specialist Diploma or of the Master degree, proof of creative
thinking in practical work or study, and an age limit of up to 35 years for
full-time and up to 45 years for part-time doctoral students. Institutions
set quotas limiting the number of doctoral students to be admitted each
year. The quotas are based on the available funds and equipment, the staff
necessary for supervision, as well as on the needs of science and the
economy for highly qualified personnel in the given field.
Admission to entrance examinations is determined on the basis of synopsis of
the selected subject as presented by each applicant, research and
development outcomes also submitted by the applicant, and the results of
preliminary discussions of projected research topics with possible
supervisors. Applicants take competitive entrance examinations in the
subject of specialization, in one foreign language, and in philosophy.
Enrollment is based on success in the entrance examinations and evaluation
by the prospective supervisor. The registration procedure for candidates who
have obtained the right to be enrolled as Ph.D.-student is undertaken by the
respective higher education establishment or research institution. There are
both full- and part-time postgraduate studies. The duration of full- and
part-time studies must not exceed three and four years respectively.
In order to be awarded the Ph.D. degree, a student must complete, present
and defend a dissertation (thesis). Dissertation topics should generally
correspond to the scientific areas of the basic projects undertaken by the
awarding institutions and be approved by its Academic Council for each
doctoral student. A Doctor of Science or a professor specializing in the
subject area is appointed as a supervisor for each Ph. D .student as soon as
he or she joins an postgraduate department. Full-time doctoral students
receive grants paid by the state.
Doctoral studies programs include both postgraduate courses and research.
During postgraduate studies, students must learn pedagogy and teaching
methods, psychology, economics, information technology and other subjects,
and pass specific profile examinations set by the Academic Council for every
speciality. In addition to course examinations, aspirants must pass
qualifying (Candidate) examinations in the given speciality, in philosophy
and in foreign language.
A Ph.D. thesis is expected to be a scholarly work which makes an original
and valuable contribution to the field of knowledge concerned and reflects
the novelty and significance of the outcomes of this given research.
Moreover, the thesis content must demonstrate that its author has an
excellent knowledge of the field as well as an aptitude for independent
The defense of the thesis is carried out before a Dissertation Council
organized by the Supreme Certifying Committee of the Ministry of Education
of the Russian Federation. A Dissertation Council is composed of holders of
the Doctor of Sciences and Ph.D. degrees.
The public defense of the thesis is held in the form of a public report and
a scientific discussion. Proceeding from the cumulative evaluation of the
results of the defense and the judgments of independent experts and official
opponents,the Council decides by secret ballot whether or not the thesis
meets the requirements for a Ph.D.-degree work. If the verdict is positive,
the applicant will be granted the Ph.D. degree and the corresponding
diploma. In case of failure, the defence can be repeated in no less than one
Another route leading to the Ph.D. degree is outside the doctoral system. In
this case, an applicant, holder of a Specialist or Master diploma with no
less than two years of work experience, is attached to a higher education
establishment or to a research institution for tutoring in specialized
subjects, a foreign language and philosophy, and for taking the qualifying
(Candidate) examinations as well as for preparing a thesis. The applicant
has to pass qualifying examinations similar to those for Ph.D.-students.
Upon the successful completion of dissertation and individual programmes,
applicants may defend their theses. The requirements for the thesis, the
procedure for its defence, and the subsequent award of the academic degrees
are the same.
The second and highest academic degree is the degree of Doctor of Sciences
(D, Sc.). It is awarded in the same broad fields of knowledge as the Ph.D.
degree. Doctoral theses are prepared either on a full-time basis during
doctoral studies or independently. Doctoral study can be organized in
leading higher education establishments and research institutions in given
fields of science and knowledge having advanced research facilities and
Admission to D.Sc.-study is competitive, available to citizens (the age
limit is 40 years) who are holders of Ph.D. degrees and are already known
for their contributions in their fields.
The main admission requirements for doctoral programmes are the following:
scientific achievements in a chosen speciality; a complete outline for a
dissertation; scientific publications; the recommendation of employers
including an assessment of the applicant's research. Decision-making with
regard to the admission of candidates to doctoral study is based on
scientific reports by candidates on the subjects of their theses as well as
on individual programmes of research, and on the conclusions of the
respective institution departments. Proposed time-periods may not exceed
The qualifying requirements for a doctoral thesis are higher than those for
a Ph.D.-thesis. The dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Sciences should
be an advanced work in which an important scientific problem having
economic, social-cultural or political significance, is solved; or it should
present scientifically-based technical, economic or technological ideas, the
implementation of which would make a considerable contribution to scientific
and technological progress.
Doctoral programmes consist only of research. A scientific consultant, a
holder of the Doctor of Science degree, may be appointed to advise doctoral
students on their dissertation research. In the course of study, a
D.Sc.-student must complete his or her doctoral thesis and submit it to the
Dissertation Council designed by the Supreme Certifying Committee of the
Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation consisting of Doctors of
The defence procedure for the D.Sc. degree is the same as for the Ph.D.
degree. The Dissertation Council receives the recommendations as to the
award or non-award of the degree. The final decision regarding the award of
a Doctor of Science degree is taken bythe Supreme Certifying Committee of
the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, following which the
applicant is awarded the Doctor of Science diploma.
Another route for the earning of the Doctor of Sciences degree is the
preparation of a thesis on one's own, combining work and research. In this
case there is no age limit for the defence of the Doctor dissertation.
In some cases the applicant, not a holder of the Ph.D. degree, is allowed to
defence the thesis for the Doctor of Sciences degree, under condition of
taking qualifying candidate examinations as it is ordered.
Examination of the Russian education history reveals a great importance all
the states-predecessors of the Russian Federation to have given to the
training and upgrading of the foreign students and postgraduates of many
In 1865 the Ministry of Education considered it expedient to start training
foreigners in Russia. In the second half of the XIX century the Russian
Government supported and allocated personal scholarships in Moscow,
St.-Petersburg, Novorossiysk, Odessa universities and other civil and
religious educational establishments where students from Bulgaria, Albania,
Bosnia, Hertsegovina, Serbia, and other countries did their study.
The Soviet Union carried on the tradition. In the twenties, students from
Mongolia, Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan came to study in the USSR. In 1921 the
Communist University of Eastern students was founded and by the end of 1921
foreign students of 44 nationalities attended it.
In the forties, Russian welcomed students from Europe and Asia; from the
fifties - from Africa; later - from Latin America. In February 1960 the
Soviet Government issued the Decree founding the University of Peoples'
Friendship named after P.Lumumba renamed in 1992 as the Russian University
of Peoples' Friendship and destined for training high qualified specialists
for foreign countries. The Moscow State University named after
M.V.Lomonosov, St.-Petersburg State University as well as other leading
state and non-state universities and academies are recognized centers of
international co-operation and foreign students' training.
The Russian educational system has accumulated wide theoretical and
practical experience in training foreign specialists. Wide range of matters
related to methodical, personnel and legal aspects of foreign students'
training in Russian higher education institutions have been resolved. The
national standing body responsible for admission, training and upgrading
foreign citizens was set up. In the 60-70th the USSR did much work aimed at
the improvement of foreign students' training system and its organization.
On a level with traditional educational routes, training in higher education
institutions, postgraduate study, upgrading
courses, the new educational forms such as preparatory courses prior to
entering universities (the first preparatory faculty was opened in the
Moscow State University in 1959), postgraduate internship as well as courses
resulting in the Master's degree for holders of the Bachelor's degree were
Nowadays, in the Russian Federation, an international co-operation on the
state level in education sphere is guided by international agreements and
treaties as well as Decrees of the Government of the Russian Federation.
The higher education system of Russia offers abroad range of study and
research courses meeting every possible academic need of students:
• preparatory courses which provide foreign students wishing to enter
into higher education with intensive Russian language and refresher courses
in the chosen academic subjects (arts and humanities, social studies,
science, engineering, medicine);
• intermediate diploma courses;
full courses resulting in Bachelor and Master degrees;
specialist's diploma programmes;
Master's degree programme for graduates already holding Bachelor's degrees;
special full-time courses for visiting students who commences and/or will
complete their degree at aforeign higher education institution;
doctoral programmes (postgraduate study, doctoral study);
continuing education and training programmes;
research study programmes;
upgrading and retraining courses;
Russian language courses including refresher courses for foreign teachers of
the Russian language;
• additional educational services (elective subjects, complexes of
subjects, ordered courses).
Every year up to 4 000 foreign citizens are enrolled in Russian higher
education institutions on the places financed by the state.
Assignment of the state scholarships for foreign students to
countries-recipients is correlated with proposals of the Russian Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, Embassies of the Russian Federation in foreign countries,
Embassies of foreign countries in the Russian Federation, international
organizations, Russian state and public organizations as well as general
outcomes of political and economic relations with the country-recipient.
Annually all information related to allocated quotes, training conditions,
list of specialities and admission procedure of foreign citizens in Russian
higher education institutions is presented to Embassies of the Russian
Federation abroad and Embassies of foreign countries in Moscow. Every year
the Russian Ministry of Education issue an order setting up the Commission
on admission of foreign citizens for training and upgrading in educational
establishments of the Russian Federation on the places financed by the
General prerequisites for admission to higher professional programmes are
completion of secondary general education that correspond to the Russian
secondary (complete) general education, grades in the selective, regarding
the future specialization, subjects no less 80% of upper level and passing
grades for other subjects in a school leaving certificate and an age limit
of up to 27 years. The period between graduation from the school or whatever
pre-institution courses and entering higher education institution in Russia
should not exceed three years.
Applicants should proof a good health state providing a medical certificate
of the set format and should not have contra-indication for the staying
under Russian climatic conditions. Admission to postgraduate study is
available only for holders of the Specialist Diploma or the Master's degree.
Application documents should be submitted to the Ministry of Education of
the Russian Federation before May15 of the year the education starts.
Foreign citizens who have not a good command of Russian are assigned to
preparatory faculty of an education institution for the period of one year
where they can acquire Russian and brush up their knowledge in chosen
subjects. Pre-students who successfully pass the final tests are granted the
Leaving Certificate of Preparatory Courses and are enrolled in Russian
higher education institutions.
The special attention is given to the issue of recognition of Russian
credentials abroad. These matters are closely related to the key term
"mobility", that of human and labour resources, mobility of information,
etc. Completion of education in foreign countries, employment abroad,
obtaining a license granting the right to perform professional activity and
other matters require the obtained credentials to be evaluated and compared
with national standards and legal provisions. To secure Russian credentials
and holders' rights the Russian Federation accessed to 15 international
multilateral conventions and agreements on recognition matters. In
particular, the Russian Federation is a Contracting State to the UNESCO
Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas, and Degrees Concerning
Higher Education in the States Belonging to the Europe Region (1979); the
UNESCO Convention of the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas, and Degrees
Concerning Higher Education in Asia and the Pacific (1983),the UNESCO
Convention of the Recognition of Qualifications Concerning Higher Education
in the Europe Region (1997), etc. The Russian Federation has concluded more
than 100 bilateral treaties concerning recognition matters, and 65 of them
are on equivalence of credentials. A number of new bilateral agreements are
In 1997 CEPES (UNESCO) elaborated Guidelines for the Recognition of
Qualifications from the other European Countries in the Russian Federation
and of Russian Qualifications in the other European Countries. In
particular, the Guidelines run as follows:
• in countries with a two-stage system of doctoral degrees, the Ph.D.
degree should be considered for recognition at the level of the first
• in countries with only one doctoral degree, the Ph.D. degree should
be considered for recognition as equivalent to this degree;
• in countries with a two-stage system of doctoral degrees, the degree
of D.Sc. should be considered for recognition at the level of the second
• in countries in which only one doctoral degree exists, the degree of
D.Sc. should be considered for recognition at the level of this degree;
University Level Degrees
• in countries with a two-stage system of university degrees, the
degree of Bachelor should be considered for recognition at the level of the
• in countries with only one university degree, the degree of Bachelor
should be considered for recognition on individual basis;
• in countries with two-stage system of university degrees, the degree
of Diploma-Specialist should be considered for recognition on the level of
the second or Master's degree;
• in countries with only one university degree, the degree of
Diploma-Specialist should be considered for recognition at the level of this
• in countries with two-stage system of university degrees, the Master
degree should be considered for recognition at the level of the second or
• in countries with only one university degree, the Master's degree
should be considered for recognition at the level of this university degree.
A great number of multilateral and bilateral agreements, conventions,
protocols and memoranda with different countries on recognition and
equivalency of training periods and credentials is a conclusive proof of
high prestige and appreciation of the Russian educational system in the
The aims to which Russian institutions of higher education aspire today,
their main values are determined by the awareness of Russia's inseparability
from the destiny of the world civilization, from the search of a path which
the mankind will follow in the XXI century. New Russian education laws, the
current national policy concerning higher education are aimed to realize in
higher educational institutions the classical educational rights - the
freedom of teaching and the freedom of learning.
The Guide-website "Russian Higher Education" is a reliable and complete
edition on Russian state and non-state higher education institutions. The
reader has a chance to study "visiting card" of each institution, learn
about the structure, teaching staff, field of study and offered
specialization, training courses for applicants, qualification improvement
and refresher courses. The Guide-website is expected to be a useful source
of information for applicants, students, teaching and academic staff, civil
servants pertaining to educational activities, educational agencies.
Thus, dear visitors, you have a guide to the vast intellectual world called
higher education of the Russian Federation and you are welcome.